Trip Start Nov 16, 2009
35Trip End Apr 16, 2010
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The Panama Canal is considered one of the engineering wonders of the world, and each year thousands of tourists (including us) flock to watch the massive ships move through its complex lock system. Just 50 miles (80 kilometers) long, this shortcut between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans allows more than 14,000 vessels ferrying nearly 280 million tonnes of trade goods between the Eastern and Western nations to pass each year.
--- Some Interesting History ---
The idea of finding a shortcut between the Atlantic and Pacific was almost simultaneous with the discovery of the narrow isthmus of Panama in the 16th century
Construction on the canal began in 1880 by the French under Ferdinand de Lesseps, who had just successfully completed the Suez canal in Egypt. However, conditions in the dense, mountainous jungles of Panama proved far harsher than the flat, sandy desert of Egypt. Brutal working conditions, yellow fever and malaria claimed an estimated 22,000 lives before the project finally went bankrupt in 1889.
In 1904, the project was taken over by the United States under Theodore Roosevelt, after orchestrating Panama's move for independence from Colombia the previous year. The discovery of mosquitos as the carriers of yellow fever and malaria allowed for disease prevention, and work moved quickly under improved conditions, although it would claim another 5000 lives before completion.
By 1914, the Canal, a complex system of dams and locks, was open for transit, and ships that once were forced to travel to the southernmost tip of South America cut 7800 miles (12,500 kilometers) from their voyages.
It remained under full U.S. administration until 1977, when a treaty was signed to hand over control of the Canal to Panama by 1999.
--- Process and Facts ---
The Panama Canal has three sets of locks – Gatun, Pedro Miguel and Miraflores – each of which has two lanes. These locks serve as lifts, elevating vessels 85 feet above sea level from the Atlantic or Pacific Oceans to Gatun Lake.
Fed by gravity from Gatun Lake into each set of locks, the water enters the locks’ chambers through a system of drains that extends under every lock chamber from the center and side walls.
An average of 55 million gallons of fresh water is used, and takes about eight minutes to fill each chamber. After sailing through the Continental Divide, vessels are again lowered to sea level on the opposite side of the Isthmus of Panama.
- The Canal unites the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans at one of the narrowest points of both the Isthmus of Panama and the American continent.
- The Canal is 50 miles long (80 kilometers)
- The Canal operates 24 hours a day, 365 days a year
- Each lock is 33.53 meters (110 feet) wide by 304.8 meters (1,000 feet) long
- The maximum dimensions of ships that can transit the Canal are: 32.3 meters (106 feet) in beam; 294.3 meters (965 feet) long (depending on the type of vessel); and 12 meters (39.5 feet) of draft (depth reach) in Tropical Fresh Water
- More than 1,000,000 vessels have transited the waterway since the Panama Canal opened on August 15, 1914
- On average, a vessel will take between eight to ten hours to transit the Canal; including waiting time for passage, 24.58 hours
- The Canal transports 4% of world trade (measured in long-tons) and 16% of total U.S.-borne trade
- 68% of Canal traffic originates in or is destined for the United States