More of Turkey's history, the Hittites

Trip Start Jan 01, 2014
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Trip End Dec 31, 2014


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Where I stayed
Ankara Hilton
What I did
Visited the capital of the Hittite Empire

Flag of Turkey  , Çorum,
Wednesday, October 5, 2011

 
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OCT 5: It was overland to Anakara today with more big surprises in store for us. Our first stop was at the historical site of Hattusas.  Hattusas was the capital of the Hittite Empire during the late bronze age, or about the 6th millennium BC. The German Oriental Society has been excavating since 1906 with breaks during the two world wars and the depression. However, archaeological work is still carried out by the German Archaeological Institute, and has been
designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1986. Some of the ruins are still in relatively good shape including Lion's Gate for its age.
 
However, I am critical of how they have renovated one of the lions to make it look like the original several millinnia ago. They could have accomplished this as a separate sculpture.


We were also able to see the 12' relief of King Tudhaliya IV and the Hittite pantheon at the site.


From Wiki:Yazilikaya (Turkish for "inscribed rock") was a sanctuary of Hattusa, the capital city of the Hittite Empire, today in the Çorum ProvinceTurkey.This was a holy site for the Hittites
living in the nearby city of 
Hattusa.
Most impressive today are the rock-cut reliefs portraying the gods from the Hittite pantheon. There were also shrines built adjacent to the rocks. It is believed that New Year's celebrations took place at the site. The sanctuaries were used from the fifteenth century BC, but most of the rock carvings date to the reign of the Hittite kings 
Tudhaliya IV and Suppiluliuma II in the late .

 13th century BC.
Relief with the twelve gods of the underworld.The most impressive Chamber is Chamber A, which contains rock-cut relief of 64 deities in procession. The left wall shows a procession of male deities, wearing the traditional kilts, pointed shoes and horned hats. Mountain gods are also shown with scaled skirts to symbolise the rocky mountains. The right wall shows a procession of female deities wearing crowns and long skirts. The only exception to this divide is the goddess of love and war, Shaushka (Mesopotamian goddessIshtar/Inanna) who is shown on the male procession with two female attendants.Tudhaliya IV was a king of the Hittite empire (New kingdom), and the younger son of Hattusili III. He reigned ca.1237 BCE-1209 BCE.  His mother was called Puduhepa.  He had two sons who were both kings.
 
 

 
  
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From Wiki:
 
HIstory of Egypto-Hittite Peace Treaty (c. 1258 BC) between Hattusili III andRamesses II is the best known early written peace treaty. Istanbul Archaeology MuseumMain article: History of the HittitesThe Hittite kingdom is conventionally divided into three periods, the Old Hittite Kingdom (ca. 1750-1500 BC), the Middle Hittite Kingdom (ca. 1500-1430 BC) and the New Hittite Kingdom (the Hittite Empire proper, ca. 1430-1180 BC).The earliest known member of a Hittite speaking dynasty, Pithana, was based at the city of Kussara. In the 18th century BC Anitta, his son and successor, made the Hittite speaking city of Nesa into one of his capitals and adopted the Hittite language for his inscriptions there. However, Kussara remained the dynastic capital for about a century until Labarna II adopted Hattusa as the dynastic seat, probably taking the throne name of Hattusili, "man of Hattusa", at that time.The Old Kingdom, centred at Hattusa, peaked during the 16th century BC. The kingdom even managed to sack Babylon at one point, but made no attempt to govern there, enabling the Kassite to rise to prominence and rule for over 400 years.During the 15th century BC, Hittite power fell into obscurity, re-emerging with the reign of Tudhaliya I from ca. 1400 BC. Under Suppiluliuma I and Mursili II, the Empire was extended to most of Anatolia and parts of Syria and Canaan, so that by 1300 BC the Hittites were bordering on the Egyptian sphere of influence, leading to the inconclusive Battle of Kadesh in 1274 BC.Civil war and rivalling claims to the throne, combined with the external threat of the Sea Peoples weakened the Hittites and by 1160 BC, the Empire had collapsed. "Neo-Hittite" post-Empire states, petty kingdoms under Assyrian rule, may have lingered on until ca. 700 BC, and the Bronze Age Hittite and Luwian dialects evolved into the sparsely       attested LydianLycian and Caria   languages.Remnants of these languages lingere into Persian times (6th-4th centuries BC) and were finally extinguished by the spread of Hellenism which followed Alexander the Great's conquest of Asia Minor in the 4th century BC.

 
 
 
 
 
  
 
 
 

 
 
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